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silica spicules in Ta Khmau

Another form of biogenic silica commonly found in sedi-ments is siliceous sponge spicules (structural elements which support the skeleton of the animal; phylum porifera, classes demospongiae and hexactinellida). sponge spicules come in a variety of shapes and sizes, ranging from micrometres to metres long (uziz et al., 2003; jochum et al., 2012), and
Silica occurs as spicules, short reinforcing rods, in sponges. the spicules are typically 10 μm in diameter and 100 μm long and may be simple rods or complex branched structures. they apparently form by aggregation of silica nanoparticles onto a thread of polysaccharide or protein within a vesicle, a membrane-enclosed space inside the organism.
Silicatein is an enzyme which forms the bio-silica required for the construction of the sponge spicules [11]–[14]. the formation of spicules is a rapid process, which lasts for a spicule with a length of 190 µm and a diameter of 6 to 8 µm at 21°c only 40 hrs [15].
After processing, the sponge powder contains precisely sized and shaped silica spicules that upon application may help exfoliate the skin, promote collagen production, open closed comedones and facilitate penetration of the sponge’s naturally occurring chemical compounds.

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